1. The greater the amount of control applied in a research situation, the less _____ the research results tend to be.
2. I wanted to test the hypothesis that giving daily quizzes in PSY 101 improves test scores. I gave daily quizzes in one section of PSY 101, but not in the other. I then compared test scores in the two sections. By performing this study in actual classes that I was teaching, I increased the _____ of my study.
A. external validity
3. Which of the following types of research study tends to have the highest internal validity?
B. experimental studies
4. Scientific researchers deliberately set up artificial laboratory conditions when testing their hypotheses because
A. it is the best way to increase the internal validity of a study.
5. As researchers increase the _____ of a study, there tends to be a decrease in the _____ of the study.
C. internal validity; external validity
6. Let’s say that we want to measure the attitudes of Americans with respect to various kinds of sexual behaviors. We know that we cannot talk to every single American, so we decide to take a sample of Americans and interview them. We decide to go to Christian churches on Sundays and interview people as they leave the service. What is the most important problem for this procedure?
D. We are not using a representative sample.
7. When a study is high in internal validity,
B. its results provide clear support for the hypothesis being tested.
8. When Milgram’s study was replicated in other countries with participants from various cultural backgrounds, researchers found that
B. there was some variation across cultures in rates of obedience.
9. If we are concerned with whether a study’s design is adequate for testing a particular hypothesis (with respect to alternative hypotheses), we are concerned with the study’s
A. internal validity.
10. A research study investigated the amount of cheating among college students by having professors ask their students how often they cheated during tests. The most important problem for this study is that it has low
A. internal validity.
11. In his studies of the cause(s) of pellagra, Goldberger was most concerned with the
C. internal validity of the research.
12. In order to test whether or not smoking increases the chances of developing lung cancer, one group of rats was forced to inhale cigarette smoke each day for one year and a second group of rats did not inhale cigarette smoke. Six months later, all rats were examined to see which showed signs of lung cancer. In this example, the experimental group was
D. the rats forced to inhale smoke.
13. When a study is high in external validity,
C. its results can easily be generalized to other situations.